Knowledge base 

Dosage forms & applications

The overwhelming majority of medicines, whether sold over the counter or in the form of ethical prescription drugs, are taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules or into the lungs via inhalants. DFE Pharma is expert at providing exactly the right form of excipients to deliver the right level of performance across all these dosage forms.

Excipients produced by DFE Pharma are designed for high performance at all times, with different options that are suitable for different types of active ingredient, patient choice and manufacturing choices.

DFE Pharma specialises in supplying excipients to the right place at the right time and in the right quantities. Our excipients play an essential role in stabilising active ingredients and releasing them into the patient’s system in a predictable and effective manner. We work with pharmaceutical formulators to ensure that their medicines achieve the highest levels of performance, while complying with regulatory requirements in countries around the world.

Dry powder inhalation

In Dry Powder Inhalation (DPI), the fastest-growing and most significant form of inhaled treatment, the effectiveness of the medicine is absolutely dependent on the excipient used to carry it. The comparatively large excipient particles release the much smaller active ingredient particles into the patient’s lungs, while themselves being deposited harmlessly onto the throat.

Oral solid dosage

Most medicines, from over the counter treatments to prescription drugs, are taken by mouth in the form of tablets and capsules. Oral medicines are convenient, flexible and cost-effective. They can be produced in large numbers very fast (production rates of 1 million per hour can be achieved). Variants that are precisely suited to individual preferences and needs can easily be developed. More on Oral Solid Dose.

Direct compression

Direct compression is the simplest form of oral dosage production as it contains the fewest process stages, leading to a shorter process cycle and faster production times.

Dry granulation

Dry granulation is a simple and low cost method, once extremely common and again becoming more popular because of its simplicity and cost efficiency. Dry Granulation helps to increase the size of granules within powders, making it easier to form them into tablets or capsules. It also leads to dense and stable formulations for use in filling capsules.

Wet granulation

This is perhaps the most popular method for tablet production because it can be applied to almost any dosage of any drug. Wet granulation of powders improves flow and compactability of the compression mix, and this is the key to its popularity.

Extrusion spheronisation

Extrusion spheranisation is similar in almost every respect to Wet Granulation, following similar process stages. The difference are the extra stages for shaping the processed materials, typically for use in capsules that deliver active ingredients on a timed basis.

Capsule filling

Hard gelatin capsules are a common oral solid dosage for immediate release formulations. Compared to tablets they are easy to formulate and manufacture, formulations can be developed with minimal amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and they are easily blinded for clinical trial purposes. Additionally they provide a ready means of identification through the choice of capsule shell colour and printing, and they are patient friendly being easy to swallow and providing taste masking for unpleasant actives.

Continuous Manufacturing

Controlling all variables is essential for Continuous Manufacturing of drug products. Excipients like APIs have inherent variation. Therefore it is of importance to understand the implications of this variation on continuous processes and thereby to the final product. DFE Pharma is applying fundamental and mechanistic analyses to gain understanding of the potential excipient variation on final product.